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Object-oriented database models

In the 1990s, the object-oriented programming paradigm was applied to database technology, creating a new database model known as object databases. This aims to avoid the object-relational impedance mismatch – the overhead of converting information between its representation in the database (for example as rows in tables) and its representation in the application program (typically as objects). Even further, the type system used in a particular application can be defined directly in the database, allowing the database to enforce the same data integrity invariants. Object databases also introduce the key ideas of object programming, such as encapsulation and polymorphism, into the world of databases.

A variety of these ways have been tried[by whom?]for storing objects in a database. Some[which?] products have approached the problem from the application programming end, by making the objects manipulated by the program persistent. This typically requires the addition of some kind of query language, since conventional programming languages do not have the ability to find objects based on their information content